By Peter A. Flach, Antonis C. Kakas (auth.), Peter A. Flach, Antonis C. Kakas (eds.)
From the very starting in their research of human reasoning, philosophers have pointed out different kinds of reasoning, along with deduction, which we now name abduction and induction. Deduction is now quite good understood, yet abduction and induction have eluded the same point of knowing. The papers accrued the following deal with the connection among abduction and induction and their attainable integration. The procedure is typically philosophical, occasionally that of natural good judgment, and a few papers undertake the extra task-oriented method of AI.
The ebook will command the eye of philosophers, logicians, AI researchers and computing device scientists in general.
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Additional info for Abduction and Induction: Essays on their Relation and Integration, 1st Edition
This second one is modus ponens, and this one is smart. Modus ponens has some kind of intuitively visible logical force. In contrast, backward modes ponens is obviously fallacious. Copi calls it "the fallacy of affirming the consequent" (Copi and Cohen, 1998). By itself, backward modus ponens is not smart, although reasoning in SMART INDUCfiVE GENERALIZATIONS ARE ABDUCfiONS 35 accordance with its pattern may be smart for other reasons, and there may be special contexts in which following the pattern is smart.
A. ACH AND A. C. KAKAS What cannot happen is that the chosen abductive hypothesis A alone (without T) predicts a new observation, as A does not affect directly the value of the observable predicates. Every prediction on an observable derived in T(A), not previously true in T (including the observation that drives the abductive process), corresponds to some further instance knowledge A', which is a consequence of T(A), and describes the new situation (or individual) at hand. Such consequences are already known to be possible in the theory T, as we know that one of its possible extensions is T(A').
E. T' f= 0). At the simplest level, abduction and induction simply co-exist and both function as revision mechanisms that can be used in developing the new theory (Michalski, 1993). In a slightly more cooperative setting, induction provides new foreground knowledge in T for later use by abduction. At a deeper level of cooperation, abduction and induction can be integrated together within the process of constructing T. 2 The cycle of abductive and inductive knowledge development. several ways in which this can happen within a cycle of development of T, as will be described below.