By Sascha W. Felix
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Extra resources for Advances in Shrimp Aquaculture Management
This will result in low pH of the pond water unless the soil is improved. Considering the cost an difficulty required to improve an acid sulfate subsoil, it is suggested that in areas where there is a non-acid topsoil, it may be more economically favourable to use bar ditch type construction and fill the ponds by pumping. During the formation of pond, the surface layer of good soil can be set aside and replaced as a surface layer on the pond bottom and dikes. If the amount of good soil is limited, it should be used to surface the dikes into the pond water.
If ponds are constructed with peripheral canals, treatment of only the canals with iron oxide might be practical, as most of the organic debris is deposited in these canals and H2S production should be restricted in these canals only. Chapter 4 Stocking Management A. Pond Preparation (i) Drying the Pond Bottom Drying the pond bottom periodically in shrimp farms help to mineralize the organic materials accumulated in the soil. It also reduces the production of H2S and other harmful substances that may be produced during anaerobic reduction of the organic material when the pond is with water.
Phagocytosis and intracellular killing may increased in shrimps which are fed with supplemental vitamin A. It restores normal humoral and cellular activity in steroid–treated animals. Retinoids and carotenoids increase the proliferation of T helper cells, the induction of cytotoxic T cells and expression of IL-2 receptors on natural killer cells. Vitamin A is a relatively weak anti-oxidant (Bendich, 1992; Blazer, 1992; Lail and Olivier, 1993). Carotenoids It has been illustrated that astaxanthin has an anti-cancer effect and increases the number of communicating cells.