By M. Khare
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Additional resources for Air Pollution - Monitoring, Mdlg., Health and Control
When inhaled, very small particles containing metals or their compounds deposit beyond the bronchial regions of the lungs into the alveoli region. Epidemiological studies have established relationships between inhaled suspended particulate matter and morbidity/ mortality in populations (6-7). Studies in occupational or community settings have established the health effects of exposure to trace metals, such as lead, cadmium, nickel and their compounds (8-9). The accumulation of metals in human body can have middle and long-term health risks and can adversely affect the physiological functions (1-4).
Free cadmium ions in the cells result from degradation of metallothionein and initiate a new synthesis of metallothionein, binding the cadmium, and thus protecting the cell from the highly toxic free cadmium ions. Kidney dysfunction is considered to occur when the metallothionein-producing capacity of the tubular cells is exceeded. The kidney and liver have the highest concentrations of cadmium, together containing about 50% of the body burden of cadmium. The cadmium concentration in the kidney cortex, before cadmiuminduced kidney damage occurs, is generally about 15 times the concentration in liver.
Chromic acid is used not only for “decorative” chromium plating but also for “hard” chromium plating, where it is deposited in much thicker layers to give an extremely hard surface with a low coefficient of friction. Because of the strong oxidizing action of chromates in acid solution, there are many industrial applications particularly involving organic materials, such as the oxidation of trinitrotoluene (TNT) to give phloroglucinol and the oxidation of picoline to give nicotine acid (66). 1 Toxicity Compounds with CrIII oxidation states are considerably less hazardous than are CrVI compounds.