By Andrew Chi-Chih Yao (auth.), Toshihide Ibaraki, Naoki Katoh, Hirotaka Ono (eds.)

This quantity comprises the complaints of the 14th Annual foreign S- posium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2003), held in Kyoto, Japan, 15–17 December 2003. some time past, it used to be held in Tokyo (1990), Taipei (1991), Nagoya (1992), Hong Kong (1993), Beijing (1994), Cairns (1995), Osaka (1996), Singapore (1997), Taejon (1998), Chennai (1999), Taipei (2000), Christchurch (2001), and Vancouver (2002). ISAACisanannualinternationalsymposiumthatcoverstheverywiderange of themes in algorithms and computation. the most function of the symposium is to supply a discussion board for researchers operating in algorithms and the speculation of computation the place they could alternate rules during this lively study neighborhood. according to our demand papers, we obtained abruptly many subm- sions, 207 papers. the duty of choosing the papers during this quantity used to be performed by way of our software committee and referees. After a radical assessment method, the committee chosen seventy three papers. the choice used to be performed at the foundation of originality and relevance to the ?eld of algorithms and computation. we are hoping all authorized papers will eventally look in scienti?c journals in additional polished varieties. the simplest paper award used to be given for “On the Geometric Dilation of Finite element units” to Annette Ebbers-Baumann, Ansgar Grune ¨ and Rolf Klein. eminent invited audio system, Prof. Andrew Chi-Chih Yao of Princeton college and Prof. Takao Nishizeki of Tohoku collage, contributed to this proceedings.

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Maheshwari and M. Smid which belong to the same cost group. The total number of operations required to merge two 2-3 trees is given by Theorem 3. 4. Theorem 4. A dynamic dictionary representing a set consisting of n priced elements drawn from a total order can be maintained. It supports insertion, deletion and searching of a key value and each of these operations can be achieved within a competitive ratio of O(log n) in the priced information model. The cost of an operation is the sum of the prices of the elements involved in that operation.

Suppose j is the ﬁrst violating value of i. Then, k must satisfy that 2j−1 ≤ k < 2j . Now, we binary search in the range for k. Thus, it takes O(2j log k) = O(k log k) time for computing g0 . The rest of analysis is routine. 1 15 Concluding Remarks It is also important to consider the case where the output has at most k peaks and the total L2 distance is minimized. It is possible to solve it in polynomial time by running a dynamic programming algorithm by using our linear time algorithm given in the previous section as a subroutine; however, it is a little expensive.

Suppose that the driver tries to move the boat at speed F in the direction vF , where vF is the unit vector, and hence the boat will move from the current point p to p + ΔtF vF in time Δt if there is no water ﬂow, as shown by the broken arrow in Fig 1. However, the ﬂow of water also displaces the boat by Δtf (x, y), and hence the actual movement Δu of the boat in time interval Δt is represented by Δu = ΔtF vF + Δtf (x, y). Consequently, the eﬀective speed of the boat in the water ﬂow is given by Δu = |F vF + f (x, y)| .