By G. C. Barrett
This article is meant for undergraduate and starting graduate scholars in chemistry and biochemistry learning amino acids and peptides. The authors pay attention to amino acids and peptides with out particular discussions of proteins, whereas giving the entire crucial heritage chemistry, together with series choice, synthesis and spectroscopic equipment. The procedure is meant to inspire the reader to go classical barriers whereas gaining an figuring out of protein habit on a molecular point. The e-book contains chapters at the organic roles of amino acids, in addition to a piece on enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of peptides, with appropriate examples, a space usually ignored in texts describing peptide synthesis. this contemporary textual content could be of worth within the amino acid, peptide and protein box, to complex undergraduates, graduate scholars and learn staff.
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Additional info for Amino Acids and Peptides
D. (1989) Prediction of Protein Structures and the Principles of Protein Conformation, Plenum, New York. Fasman, G. D. ) (1996) Circular Dichroism in Conformational Analysis of Biomolecules, Plenum, New York. Hermkens, P. H. , van Dinther, T. , Joukema, C. , Wagenaars, G. N. and Ottenheijm, H. C. , 35, 9271. , Buttkus, U. -H. (1991) Angew. Chem. Int. , 30, 1514. Zimm, B. , and Bragg, J. K. (1959) J. Chem. , 31, 526. g. g. g. aliphatic hydroxy and side-chain amide groups). The properties of peptides also depend on the same factors, but it must be remembered that, in a linear peptide containing n amino-acid residues, all but one ␣-amino group and one ␣carboxy group are incorporated into neutral peptide and amide bonds.
In addition to the number of groups that may be involved, their pKa values can be perturbed by several factors. For example, when charged groups are in close proximity and when salts are present, pKa values are inﬂuenced by electrostatic eﬀects. e. 5 Å) and is the Debye–Hückel parameter deﬁned by the equation ϭ 4Ne2 ͚c z 2 i i i DRT 1/2 where ci and Zi are the concentration and charge of the ith ionic species. At best, this correction is only approximate since it assumes that the peptide or protein is spher33 ical with the charges uniformly distributed over the surface.
A simple amino acid exists in neutral aqueous solution as a dipolar ion (Zwitterion), NHϩ3 CHRCOϪ 2 . 3 and is about 300 times stronger an acid than is acetic acid due to the electrostatic eﬀect of the —NHϩ3 group. 7. 6) for a simple aliphatic primary amine. The large diﬀerence results from the powerful electron-attracting eﬀect of the —COOR group. The —COOϪ group in the dipolar ion of an amino acid cannot have such a large eﬀect since it already has a negative charge. 7. In other words, the —NHϩ3 group in an ␣-amino group is about eight times stronger as an acid than is the —NHϩ3 group in a salt of an aliphatic primary amine.