Aquaculture Genome Technologies by Zhanjiang (John) Liu

By Zhanjiang (John) Liu

Genomics is a swiftly turning out to be clinical box with purposes starting from better affliction resistance to elevated expense of progress. Aquaculture Genome Technologies comprehensively covers the sphere of genomics and its purposes to the aquaculture undefined. This quantity seems to be to bridge the distance among a uncomplicated knowing of genomic expertise to its functional use within the aquaculture undefined.

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Third, when the robustness is coupled to the availability of many primer combinations, AFLP is a very powerful marker system for genomic differentiation. With such a technique, very minor genomic differences can be readily revealed. Fourth, as long as PCR primers are used, stringent annealing temperatures can be used for high reproducibility. This is definitely a significant improvement over the less reliable RAPD procedure (see Chapter 3). Finally, AFLP markers are relatively economical because each primer combination can often produce many polymorphic markers.

Because about a dozen bands can be analyzed simultaneously and genome sequence information is not required, RAPD rapidly gained popularity for analysis of genetic variation in the 1990s. Most often 5–20 bands can be amplified by using a single RAPD primer. Theoretically, primers with equal length should be equally efficient for generating RAPD bands, but G/C-rich RAPD primers were reported to produce more bands than A/Trich primers, presumably due to stronger annealing of G/C-rich primers (Kubelik and Szabo 1995).

How can we conduct PCR reactions to produce genomic fingerprints revealing polymorphism? RAPD procedures are based on a fundamental understanding of the annealing process. At a given base position, any DNA has four possibilities of bases: A, C, G, or T. Therefore, if the primers are short enough, there would be numerous binding sites for them in genomic DNA. , approximately once every million base pairs). Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) 23 When the short primer anneals to perfect and/or subperfect sites that are close enough (generally <2,000 bp) on opposite strands of DNA, PCR is possible using a low annealing temperature.

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