By Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Horst Klingenberg (auth.)
Differing laws among nations or unions of nations occupied with toxins relief has grew to become gasoline measuring know-how into such an incredibly broad and intricate box that very few experts in environmental enterprises and the car have a snatch of it. This e-book is meant as an outline of the fundamentals of exhaust gasoline measuring know-how describing the interrelation among emissions, immissions and the results of pollution. It goals to supply specialists and scholars alike with an realizing of the interrelationships and info inside this box. the consequences provided are according to the event amassed by means of the writer in the course of paintings spanning greater than 20 years within the car undefined. H. Klingenberg is Professor and Director of the Metrology and Reciprocating Machines Institute on the Otto-von-
Guericke-University in Magdeburg, Germany. His expert occupation in universities, learn institutes and undefined, together with a protracted span as Head of the Metrology examine and critical Laboratories at Volkswagen AG in Wolfsburg, Germany, provide him authority in fields with regards to exhaust gasoline measuring know-how. Fachgebiet: Environmental Engineering Zielgruppe: Application
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Additional info for Automobile Exhaust Emission Testing: Measurement of Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Gas Components, Exhaust Emission Tests, 1st Edition
G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Year 21 Age of veh icles Fig. 30: Decrease curve of two registration years (1970 and 1990) according to vehicle age in the western and eastern states of Germany (Source: Metz) resulting from a disproportionately frequent change of vehicles. The following years show a slight rise with a subsequent steady drop. In contrast to this, the frequency distribution in the new states of Germany is entirely different.
11 ocr Pyrolysis co CO, H' Higher hydrocarbons • = Radical electron Ox = Oxidation reaction Fig. 1: Formation of acetylene by radical crack, dehydration and polymerization processes with the example of propane Polycyclic aromatics, partly with lateral chains, result as an intermediate product. These are relatively stable thermally and are consequently detectable in exhaust emissions (for example naphthalene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene and the corresponding derivatives). If the acetylene addition is continued, then the carbon content in the molecules continues to rise at the cost of the hydrogen content, until finally a graphite-like soot particle is formed.
5 . l . 5. 5 . 5 . 0. 5 . 10-4 Over 98 % by weight of the exhaust gas (5th column) is made up of carbon dioxide, water, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. 6 % by weight. 078 % by volume are obtained. 05 % by weight of the exhaust emissions in the case of an engine without a catalytic converter, are the unlimited (unregulated) exhaust components (refer to Chap. 7). Their main representatives are hydrogen (pyrolysis product of hydrocarbons), the sulfur compounds (oxidation products of the fuel's sulfur content), the aldehydes (partly oxidized hydrocarbons) and ammonia (reduction product of nitrogen oxide).