Automotive Exhaust Emissions and Energy Recovery by Apostolos Pesiridis

By Apostolos Pesiridis

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Particulate Emission and Soot Formation Processes by Diesel Engines. IMechE, Chester. , Houben, M. 1991. Soot Formation and Oxidation in Diesel Engines. International Workshop ‘Mechanisms and Models of Soot Formation, University Heidelberg. , MacNee W. 1998. Ultrafine (nanometer) Particle Mediated Lung Injury, Journal of Aerosol Science 29, 553–560. , Utell, M. J. 2002. Ultrafine Particles in the Urban Air: to the Respiratory Track and Beyond, Environmental Health Perspectives, 110, A440–A441. W.

5 -2 -2 ET Main [s] Prail [bar] EGR [%] VSA [%] 600 640 556 594 500 500 730 730 57 57 35 35 66 66 27 27 40 Silvana Di Iorio, Ezio Mancaruso and Bianca Maria Vaglieco Thermodynamic Analysis The in-cylinder pressure, the rate of heat release (ROHR) and the injector energizing current versus the crank angle degree (cad), over the end of compression and the early expansion stroke are depicted in Figure 3. The effect of RME on injection duration is more evident at 2000 rpm, as possbiler to see looking at the injector energizing curve.

5 crank angle degrees at 1500 rpm and 2000 rpm, respectively. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Two-Colour Pyrometry The two-colour pyrometry technique utilizes the thermal radiation from soot particles for the calculation of soot concentration and temperature [74, 75]. The intensity radiation emitted from a blackbody depends on the wavelength and temperature according to the Planck law: I b,  T   C1  C   5 exp  2   1   T   (1) Where Ib, is the monochromatic emissive power of a black body;  is the wavelength; C1 and C2 are the first and second Planck constants; T is the flame temperature.

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