By Giancarlo Lancini, Rolando Lorenzetti (auth.)
In reaction to the field's want for an introductory textual content, the authors have distilled the immense and scattered literature in relation to the biotechnology of microbial secondary metabolites. basic biology, biosynthesis, the hunt for novel metabolites, and methods for pressure development are all mentioned to supply undergraduate and graduate scholars with a concise, readable assessment of the field.
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Additional resources for [(Biotechnology of Antibiotics and Other Bioactive Microbial Metabolites)] [Author: Giancarlo Lancini] published on (February, 1994)
Group I is the largest one, including species common in soil such asP. aeruginosa, P. jluorescens. Characteristic of many of these is the production of fluorescent pigments, which can 26 CHAPTER 2 chelate iron and allow growth on low-iron media. Species belonging to group II may be animal or plant pathogens, whereas group III is largely represented by species using C02 and H 2 as source of energy. A few species only, with rather diverse characteristics, belong to groups IV andY. Although the presence of multiple polar flagella is included in the genus definition, at least one species is nonflagellated and others may also bear lateral flagella.
The products of one group, the bid genes (from "bald" mutants), are involved in aerial mycelium formation. A, determines the synthesis of a specific tRNA recognizing the rare codon TTA which codes for leucine. A second group, the whi genes (from "white" mutants), are needed for the conversion of aerial mycelium into spores. Among these, whiG codes for a sigma factor required for the translation of genes involved in the first steps ofthis process. Thus, it appears that there are two different mechanisms regulating differentiation: one at the translational level, that is, the expression of genes containing the TTA codon, and one at the transcriptional level, concerning the genes whose promoters are recognized by a specific sigma factor, as is the case for B.
About 250 antibiotics have been isolated from Actinomadura strains. Most frequently found are the ionophoric polyethers, as the madurimicins produced by A. yumaensis and cationomycin produced by A. azurea. Also frequent are the antitumor anthracyclines, prominent among which are the carminomycins (Fig. 18), produced by A. roseoviolacea and other strains. Peptides of interest are: the dalbaheptides parvodicin (A. parvosata) and A-40926 (Actinomadura ATCC 39727) and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor 1-5 B (A.